A framework for disentangling the hyperbolic truth of neurofeedback: Comment on Thibault and Raz (2017).

In this comment, we propose a theoretical framework for disentangling the potentially multiple elements driving the effects of electroencephalogram (EEG)-neurofeedback (EEG-nf) to clarify the roadmap for research in the field. Three questions are identified: (a) Do EEG-nf effects originate from a placebo effect related to the technological environment of a neurofeedback session? (b) Do EEG-nf effects originate from a nonspecific effect of cognitive brain training during neurofeedback? If so, a cognitive training would be underpinned by the brain activity regulation loop but this training would not be specifically related to the neurophysiological biomarker chosen. (c) Do EEG-nf effects originate from a specific effect of cognitive brain training? If so, the effects of EEG-nf would be explained by the training of the specific neurophysiological biomarker chosen, depending on the pathophysiological mechanism(s) of the disorder. The proposed framework might thus allow to understand to what degree each of these level contribute to the effects of EEG-nf on the brain and behavior in view of the psychosocial variables involved. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)