Article Correctness Is Author's Responsibility: “The ipsilesional attention bias in right-hemisphere stroke patients as revealed by a realistic visual search task: Neuroanatomical correlates and functional relevance”: Correction to Machner et al. (2018).

Reports an error in “The ipsilesional attention bias in right-hemisphere stroke patients as revealed by a realistic visual search task: Neuroanatomical correlates and functional relevance” by Björn Machner, Inga Könemund, Janina von der Gablentz, Paul …

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Article Correctness Is Author's Responsibility: Cognitive performance and structural brain correlates in long-term anabolic-androgenic steroid exposed and nonexposed weightlifters.

Objective: To test for associations between long-term anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use and cognitive functioning, and establish a candidate neuronal basis by assessing the associations between cognitive performance and brain morphology both in use…

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Article Correctness Is Author's Responsibility: Do children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have set shifting deficits?

Objective: Set shifting, or cognitive flexibility, is a core executive function involving the ability to quickly and efficiently shift back and forth between mental sets. Meta-analysis suggests medium-magnitude shifting impairments in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, this conclusion may be premature because the evidence-base relies exclusively on tasks that have been criticized for poor construct validity and may better reflect general neuropsychological functioning rather than shifting specifically. Method: A well-characterized sample of 77 children ages 8–13 (M = 10.46, SD = 1.54; 32 girls; 66% Caucasian/non-Hispanic) with ADHD (n = 43) and without ADHD (n = 34) completed the criterion global-local set shifting task and 2 counterbalanced control tasks that were identical in all aspects except the key processes. Results: The experimental manipulation was successful at evoking set shifting demands during the global-local versus both nonshift control tasks (p

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Article Correctness Is Author's Responsibility: Verbal memory and voxel based morphometry in first episode non-affective psychosis: A process oriented approach.

Objective: The present study aimed to comprehensively study the specific neurocognitive constructs underlying verbal memory deficits and their neuroanatomical correlates in first episode psychosis (FEP) patients. Method: A total of 218 FEP patients and 145 healthy participants were examined with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (a widely used verbal memory measure that provides a range of performance indexes to evaluate memory) and voxel-based morphometry (a neuroimaging analysis technique that allows investigation of focal differences in brain anatomy). Results: The analyses showed that the FEP group presented significantly lower scores on acquisition/learning, F(1, 566) = 40.7; p F(1, 570) = 74.12; p F(1, 566) = 20.03; p F(1, 554) = 8.74; p = .003, but not to proactive interference. Neuroimaging analyses found significant interactions between bilateral frontal lobe morphometry and proactive interference (ρFWE = 0.023). Rate of forgetting also significantly interacted with right occipital cortex morphometry (ρFWE = 0.033). Patients with higher rates of forgetting, proactive and retroactive interference demonstrated further gray matter reductions in frontal and occipital cortical areas. Conclusions: These findings emphasize the anterior orbitofrontal cortex as the brain region that contributes to verbal memory deficits in FEP patients, and suggest specific relationships between different neuroanatomical structures and discrete verbal memory processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)

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Article Correctness Is Author's Responsibility: The TNF-alpha gene −1031T>C polymorphism is associated with onset age but not with risk of schizophrenia in a Chinese population.

Objective: Evidence has shown the importance of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the pathophysiological feature in schizophrenia patients. This study aims to determine the impact of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the TNF-alpha gene promoter on the susceptibility, onset age, and cognitive function of schizophrenia. Method: The SNP −1031T>C in the TNF-alpha gene was genotyped in 905 patients and 571 healthy controls. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to assess the schizophrenia symptoms and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) for cognitive function. Results: There was no significant difference in allele or genotype distribution of the SNP −1031T>C between patients and controls (p = .85, p = .98). This polymorphism had no significant genotypic effect on the symptomatology assessed by the PANSS. Interestingly, this polymorphism was significantly correlated with onset age in schizophrenia patients (p = .004). We found an earlier onset age in patients with the TT genotype compared to those with the CT and CC genotypes (both pC of the TNF-alpha gene may not be associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia but possibly acts as a modulator for its onset age as well as for cognitive deficits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)

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