Article Correctness Is Author's Responsibility: Photoperiod regulates hypothalamic miR-155 gene expression in female, but not male, Siberian hamsters (<em>Phodopus sungorus</em>).

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In many species, seasonal changes in photoperiod regulate several behaviors and physiological systems, including reproduction, energy balance, and immune function. MicroRNAs (miRs) regulate numerous physiological processes and developmental transitions through translational repression and mRNA degradation. Their role in seasonal transitions has been vastly understudied, with only a few reports in animals. Furthermore, no study has assessed whether there are sex differences in seasonal regulation of miRs. miR-155 is a primary candidate for seasonal regulation because it influences immune responses, energetics, and reproductive function. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that photoperiod regulates miR-155 gene expression in Siberian hamsters and whether there were sex differences in this photoperiod regulation. miR-155 gene expression levels were measured in hypothalamus, hippocampus, and spleen of male and female Siberian hamsters reared in short days (SDs) or long days (LDs). As expected, SD-reared hamsters had significantly reduced body mass, lightened pelage color, and lower reproductive organ size than LD-reared hamsters. Notably, SDs increased hypothalamic miR-155 gene expression in females but not in males. No differences were observed in hippocampus and spleen of either sex. These findings demonstrate sex-specific photoperiod regulation of miR-155 gene expression. Future studies should consider possible sex differences in miR contributions to seasonal changes in physiology and behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)